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Bethlehem Catholic High School opened in 2007 to address the long-standing concerns of residents who wanted a high school to serve the ever-growing population on the western edge of Saskatoon. The school was named in honour of the birthplace of Jesus Christ, following much discussion that occurred in the divsion using the book Build Bethlehem Everywhere, which was published by the Canadian Catholic School Trustees' Association.

Original projections set Bethlehem's opening enrolment at 350 students, but the school opened with 507 students in Grades 9 and 10. In 2008, Grade 11 was added and by fall 2009 Bethlehem served more than 1000 students from Grades 9 to 12. Bethlehem continued to grow quickly and in 2010 an additional eight classrooms were approved to be built.

Social justice has been a focus at Bethlehem since its opening. As a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) school, Bethlehem has developed partnerships with WaterCan and Kip Keino High School in Kenya during its short history.  ​